the Ancient art
Even the patriarch Ache was not the first wine maker. History how it has made wine right after the Great flood, the first book at all does not present Bibles (Life) as process of the invention of wine. He simply knew, how it to do and has made.
Religions of other ancient people, for example, Egyptians or Greeks, fairly display sacral, divine, dangerous and life-giving simultaneously character of wine. But myths about the invention and the inventor of wine have only mystical sense. The Drevne-Egyptian images show clearly and consistently all basic technological processes of winemaking, including, for example, application pressov, mixing different vinomaterialov, addition of aromatic mixes, filtering, and also principles of the account and the finished goods control. Applications of different ware at each technological stage it is accurately shown in lists. Quite clearly that ancient Egyptians knew about illnesses of wine and did everything to avoid fungoid and other infections.
If to make a start that ancient Greeks behind process of manufacturing of wine represented satirov, shaggy and having a tail, moreover and with small horns and hoofs, the version about inoplanetnyh humanoids has the right to development. Though, as well as any men, hardly humanoids always could be glad so powerful erektsii what it is possible to see on a list of vessels for wine both in the Crimean museums, and in souvenir shops.
Anyway, and the grapevine and wine have come to Crimea with Greeks and the antique civilisation which traces strongly and everywhere accompany us and today. So before to plunge into geography and history, a little bit philosophies.
Dionis or Bacchus? A source of all arts or the reason of all disgraces? – here the basic question of philosophy of wine, and for wine travel where the control to lose in any way is impossible, the question should be unequivocally solved not in favour of Bacchus with its naked sweaty paunch, obscene both ridiculous words and acts. Orgies are good occasionally and on a residence where you well know or, anyway, have got used and will forgive. On the journey and among another's people it is impossible to lose the control.
And what the second god? – And it the eternal young man and krasavchik (such, fault should do you a little bit), it is surrounded with musicians and dancers (in you should wake up both own talents, and bright perception of talents of associates). In dionisijskih processions from which the ancient theatre was born, and then and all European art, by all means there are all the same not quite decent satires. Well so, business young, known – on improvement of a potentiality wine operates, that to hide. On a resort it to a place and at the right time.
All cultivars of grapes, and them about 4 thousand, concern one biological kind Vitis Vinifera, in a wild kind anywhere not found out. People believers will easily agree that it has been created it as grapes for pleasure of the person that is why demands from the person of leaving and care. Cultural urns y j grapes do not breed seeds, but only otvodkami and chubukami (shanks, pieces) rods.
Its close relatives North American Vitis Labruska from which we had a well-known Isabella, and the European wild wood grapes Vitis Silvestris breed as well stones, but do not promote selection selection and improvement. Them otvodki and shanks do not keep properties of parental bushes. The Isabella we will speak about wines still, but the main thing – they very different not only in different districts, but even from berries of the bushes growing in one court yard.
Natural borders of distribution of a cultural grapevine are widths from 42 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres of a planet, however grapes do not suffer neither too big humidity, nor sharply continental climate with strong frosts. But it grows on very poor humus, stony and inconvenient soils where not to sustain neither to garden cultures, nor vegetables, cereals.
And than more poorly soil, the more low productivity, the is better wine! – one more occasion to tourism: the best wines of the world grow only in special corners of a planet, and the best rods are very avaricious for a crop. Only the ten countries of the world is famous for the wines, and in each country it is strictly certain provinces and areas for strictly certain grades.
Ecological conditions in the Greece and many other areas since antique times have seriously worsened. If to speak about Crimea traces of ecological accident of the beginning of our era are clearly read in the nature of Tarhankuta in the west, and Kerch peninsula in the east of our corner of the world. Once oak groves there grew, and colonists cultivated citrus and a fig, noble laurels and olives. Now the grapevine there often suffers from frosts and the high-quality structure is very limited. Ruins of hundreds davilen and vinodelcheskih complexes of the Bosporsky kingdom (on both coast of Kerch strait), speak not only about the big scales, but also about an export orientation of antique winemaking. Alas, now there only cognacs of Bagerovsky winery well go right.
But on Southern coast of Crimea where to a XVIII-th century the winemaking did not develop, now tens glorified grades from France, Italy, Spain, Germany and many other countries perfectly fructify. The Scientific research institute of grapes and wine "Magarach" has one of the collections of grapevines fullest in the world (live, fructifying!) – more than 3200 grades and forms. The fullest collection considers meeting of rods in Monpele (France) where grows 8,5 thousand grades and forms from 24 thousand.
For comparison, in modern France 250 grades are cultivated, and in economy 134 grades have value. However, and in Crimea, really significant grades about hundred and to understand them the feasible problem for the consumer.
It is important that conditions of the Crimean nature accepted almost all agricultural crops which bore behind itself the different civilisations struggling for Crimea. However, it also has led to that many newcomers have almost superseded local grades. In the literature it is often possible to meet opinion that in difference, we will tell from Kahetii, in Crimea there are no traditional wines. About the reasons of this error we still will talk, for now we will present unique of Crimean, only at us meeting grades which has not conceded to newcomers not on productivity, neither on unpretentiousness, nor on economic indicators. It is a grade Kokur ("fragrant" on krymsko-tatarski).
Kokur has bright "person" - distinct, moderately strong medovo-ajvovyj aroma. And, in dry wine it is aroma blossoming ajvovogo a garden, and in dessert (white ports with participation of Kokura, dessert "the Seventh sky of prince Golitsyn", dessert Kokur Surozh) tone of a mature quince and ajvovogo jam. Natural white wine from a grade of Kokur is made by some economy, including associations "Massandry", but the king of white dry wines of Crimea we name
It is made by Inkermansky factory of dry vintage wines from grapes of a valley of the river Kacha, blagodatnejshego on responses of antique and medieval authors of a corner.
Colour of wine clear, sparkling, from light-straw to the golden. A bouquet high-quality (on what not similar) in which aroma of ripe sweet grapes accompany tone blossoming in mountains ajvovogo a garden with fresh whiff of blossoming Jajly, slightly spicy and honey. Taste thin, fresh and harmonious, with pleasant acidity, without spirituoznosti with rich game of ajvovo-honey tones.
Term of endurance of wine 2 years, a fortress of 10-11%, acidity 6-7 g/l. Well for a thirst satisfying, and also to lungs and low fat meals from seafood, to not sharp salads with fish or a hen.
Sahara (fructose and glucose) in natural dry wines completely pass in spirit. But thus dry wines often have sour taste, and sometimes and taste bitter, that will not tell in any way about Kokure. In itself these grapes unusually sweet and fragrant.
Whence it undertook in Crimea? Most likely – result of casual repollination of different imported grades. But, of course, with the subsequent centuries-old selection of the best rods. Probably, and with an inoculation on wild wood plants that so is characteristic for all gardening of Crimea.
Wild wood grapes decorate till now the powerful century rods tesniny mountain streams of Southeast Crimea. It for example, a small river Alaka valley over 18th kilometre of highway the Alushta-pike perch. Berries at it small and sour, but also they are capable to sbrazhivaniju. Sugar which is contained by any sweet-sour fruits, under the influence of natural natural yeast easily passes in spirit. Spirit kills pathogenic bacteria, stops rotting, and at sufficient concentration (7-8%) perish already and yeast so fermentation process comes to the end.
However, since antique times manuals have remained how to prolong process of fermentation and to finish percent of alcohol to 15-16%. Basically it achieved at a stage of preparation of raw materials, uvjalivaja grapes directly on a bush, twisting brushes special nippers (them applied in Crimea also in the beginning of 20 centuries), or displaying on straw. From an antiquity for reception of strong both sweet wine used also raisin.
Possibly, different tribes of ancient people independently from each other have opened curative properties of alcohol, its ability to disinfect water to treat wounds, well and to facilitate dialogue of priests with spirits. Alcoholic drinks from an extreme antiquity received as a result of natural fermentation and from a rye (kvass), from rice (sake); and from the cow milk (kefir, yoghurt can contain to 3% of spirit), from milk mares (koumiss); from every possible fruit and berries, from vydeleny a tea mushroom.
But only natural fermentation of grape berries (the mash squeezed out of them or a mash with addition mezgi – the ground stones, a peel, sometimes and crests) gives wine . Grapes sugar is low-molecular connections: glucose and fructose. They differ from sucrose sveklovichnogo or reed sugar, first of all that spirit from them is easier acquired and does not give serious consequences, for example, to a headache.
We Will return, however, again to depth of centuries, to be exact on three thousand years ago. A mountain-wood part and southern coast of Crimea the edges known in the history under numerous descriptions of Greeks occupied then furious tribes of the Tauris, the first of ancient inhabitants.
Archeologists have found out stones of wild grapes in their jugs, for example on excavation of settlement Uch-Bash in Inkermana. This area, Southwest Crimea, 2,5 thousand years ago together with the Greek colonists has received also the first rods of cultivars.
It was already the second wave of great Greek colonisation caused by a lack of arable lands for growing policies, the cities-states which each citizen had the right to a site of the certain area. The coast of Crimea was mastered already by natives of the Greek colonies in Asia Minor. Now this Black Sea coast of Turkey where the culture of winemaking has fallen into decay with Islam domination. Therefore difficult precisely to tell, which grades have been delivered by Greeks to Crimea. Clearly only that on all classical antiquity one general technology dominated.
Actually and now "the white way" is applied to manufacture of white dry wines: grapes (including with dark colour of berries) are exposed to pressing with small pressure – then it there were bare feet of slaves. The juice of grape berries received in such a way (white) is called "mash". It muddy because of the weighed particles and sweet, but contains not all useful substances on which the grape brush is rich. In a peel is not only the natural dyes giving elegant colour, but also vitamins, tannins, microcells, in stones are the nutrients complicating taste. Additional useful substances can give fault and crests (the dense green fruit stems forming a brush of grapes).
"The Red way" allowed still in the ancient time by crushing, the retyranny of the wrung out grapes on flat stone plates with sides to receive "mezgu". The mash was drawn On it within several days (for each type of wine it is time is strictly defined) to incorporate colour, aroma, tartness and curative force mezgi. To wring out mezgu already it was necessary heavy pressami with use of cargoes and levers or hardly twisting linen bags by rotation of strong poles.
Thus, still in the ancient time people were able to do natural white dry wines (even of grapes with a dark peel of berries) and red. Together with pink. And such wines could receive and receive now differently. Short-term insisting on mezge gives pink wines from red and black grades of grapes. Mixing of a mash from white and dark grades also can give pink wine. If all berries are collected from one vineyard, such mixing is called sepazh. Such reception more ancient, natural, and fault received from such vineyards as, for example, in the Solar valley ("the Solar valley" - from a mix only here growing white grades and "the Black doctor" from a mix of native black grades) are appreciated above only. It is possible to tell that in wine tourism such wines are the main reason of travel.
The Second reception of mixing of a mash of different grades is called a blend: grapes thus occur from different places, advantages of one grade can supplement or correct properties of others, for example, high-yielding, but not too thus the sugary. Considering that already and during antique times existed huge latifundii, it is not excluded, as the blend was applied already then. Anyway, young wine from Kerkenitidy (present Evpatoria) and Kalos Limena (present Black Sea) quite could in Chersonese Taurian (Sevastopol) kupazhirovatsja with vinomaterialami from it okrugi.
As an example of such blend it is recommended pink dry wine of Gerakleja
In addition on the given theme:
Pink dry wine of Gerakleja
Secret of Chersonese